Zawadka Rymanowska, E part, edge of fish pond, leg. Zarzyka KRA. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie KRAM. Wolosate, forest roadside in direction of Szczawinka river leg. Udryn, meadow, leg. Kawecka BIL. Jedwabne, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie meadow, leg. Pawlowka, datiny meadow, leg. Fienko BIL. Giby, peatland, near Lake Dumbel, leg.
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Borys POZ. Obora, wet glade leg.
Zurek Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. Krostoszowice, moist edge of a pond, N of mine shaft, leg. Prudel KTU. Rybno, peaty wetlands, leg. Sledziona KTU. Blachownia, mire, leg. Herezniak LOD. Gliny-Wygoda near Dzbow, wetlands, mining subsidence pools, leg. Kijas near Konopiska, meadow, leg. Herezniak LOD ; Konopiska, bottom of drying pond, leg. Glogowska KTU. Psary, moist datjng, leg. Opielka KTU. Tucznawa, moist medow, leg. Milf dating in Kiahsville Szombierki, meadow, leg.
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Bolek KTU. Kosarzyska, m a. Wojtyra KTU ; Kozy, m a. Szczyrk, moist meadow under slope of Beskidek Mount leg. Broda KRA ; Brenna, wet meadow, leg. Szczyrk, Polana Hondraska gladeslope above road, leg. Oczkow, peaty patch, leg. Kocon, wet road, leg. W slope of Malinowska Skala, fen in groundwater seepage area, m a.
Zarzycki KRAM. Juszczyna, in Juszczynka stream valley, m a. Olecki Gorne, wet meadow, leg. Dudzik LOD ; Istebna, peatland near forest, leg. Kamesznica-Zlotna, moist roadside, leg. Hola KTU ; Szare, roadside, leg. Hola KTU. Pilsko, Hala Miziowa gladefen in groundwater seepage area, m a. Bialecka KRA. Kaczywol, wet meadow, leg.
Trojecka-Brzezinska KRA. Motyki Mount between Sloby and Konskie, peaty edge of forest, leg. Podgorska KRA ; Gorka, transition mire, leg. Podgorska KRA. Blizyn, fen near Blizynski Reservoir, leg. Podgorska KRA ; Blizyn, wet meadow, leg. Starachowice, forest mire, leg. S of Bugaj district of Starachowice, moist roadside, leg. Gora Wierzejska mountforest road, leg. Maciejczak KTC ; fen in groundwater seepage area on Lubrzanka river drainage divide, leg.
Strzelecka KTC. Kielce, pine forest behind shooting range, leg. Maciejczak KTC ; Kielce, wet meadow near allotments gardensleg. Lazarski KRA. Piaseczna Gorka, NE of Bilcza, wet meadow, leg.
Widelki, wetland, leg. Paul KRAM. Wola Wisniowska, peatland near forest, leg. Ostrowce near Nowy Korczyn, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie meadow, leg. Chwastowski KRAM. Orlowiny, leg. Ilawa, E edge of Lake Karas, sedge bed, leg. Polakowski OLTC. Kiersnowo, meadow on drained peatland, leg. Olesinski OLTC. Targowska Wolka, meadow, leg. Szarejko OLTC. Michalki, bottom of former fish pond, leg. Sroda OLTC.
Lubiewo, meadows near forester's lodge, leg. Piotrowska UGDA. N of Kol-czewo, mossy meadows, leg. Jarkowo near Kolobrzeg, springhead, leg. JasnowskiSZCZ. Jasnowski SZCZ. S of Zensko, about 8 km S of Choszczno, meadow, leg. Lubociesz, meadow, leg. Szczecinek, S edge of Lake Sniadowo, leg. Lebiecka SLTC. Kielpino near Choszczno, forest meadow, leg.
Dajdok, J. W of Zlotniki Married wife seeking sex tonight Fort Myers, forest clearing, leg.
Panek WRSL. Karpniki, green tourist Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie along a stream, leg. Cicha Dolina valleyKarkonosze Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, wet meadows and peatlands, leg. Grochowice, ditch in forest, leg.
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Baraniecka WRSL. Uszczonow, wetland, leg. Fortuniak LOD. Dziewin, wet meadow in Odra river valley, leg. Koziol WRSL. N of Wrzosy, wet meadow, leg. Chojnow, Fick ditch, leg. Ruchlewicz WRSL. Dobrzejow, meadow, leg. Aniol WRSL. Rybin, meadow, leg. Staszewska WRSL. Uskorz Wielki, wet Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie on Juszka river, leg. Glowacki WRSL. SE of Radecz, mire, leg. Przedmoscie, fen, leg. Stojanowska WRSL. Wojcieszow Gorny, alluvial forest and meadow, leg. Sarosiek WRSL. Lubawka, wet meadow, leg.
Dwulat WRSL. E of Krzeszow, meadow at forest edge, leg. Cisek WRSL. Walbrzych, moist meadow, leg. Rybaltowska WRSL. N of Olszyny, meadow, leg. Kuzniewski KRAM. Jerzykowice, thicket near stream, W part of village, leg. SW of Szczytniki, at forest edge near a meadow, leg. Ciaciura KRAM. Zloty Stok, Chwalislaw depression, wet meadows, leg. Twarog WRSL.
Siniak-Kierzna, meadow Piazki a. Jaworek, moist meadow, leg. Jawor, moist meadow, m a. Bielice, Kunowskei stream in village centre, leg. Nowe Grodziska, meadow in village, leg. E of Pruszowice, meadows among woods, leg. Kowal SZUB. W of Damnik, moist meadow, leg. SE of Zazdrosc, meadow near forester's lodge, leg.
W of Stara Rzeka, meadows near Czysciewnica river, leg. Kamien, meadow on Kamionka, leg. Burzynska POZ. Suchom, meadow, leg. Osie, Stary Tartak old sawmillalder can-near Kunowskiw of Lake Czerno, leg.
Lutowko, moist meadow, leg. Rejewski TRN. Pila Mlyn, leg. Siedlewska TRN. Sokole-Kuznica near Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, leg. Ceynowa TRN. Tryszczyn, meadow, leg. Szufrajda BYDG. Trzeciewnica, moist meadow, leg. Godomska LOD. Bydgoszcz Fordon, wet meadow, leg.
Korczynski BYDG. Przyjezierze, forest plantation, leg. Gugnac-ka TRN. Stemyska POZ. South carolina girl having sex webcam, springhead mire, leg. Puchalka TRN. Lubicz near Torun, forest, leg. Zalewski WA. W of Rypin, leg. Zalewski WA ; W of Rypin, forest pond, leg. Wolka Rumunki, leg. Ciechocinek, wet meadow, leg.
Kobendza WA. Maliszewo, Fuc. Lipno, leg. Zalewski WA ; Ostrowie near Lipno. Szpetal, near Wloclawek on Vistula river, leg. Wlocla-wek, Lake Widon, leg. Glosniak TRN. Lake Wojtowskie, leg. Chodecz, meadow, leg. Kobialki, meadow, leg. Zdzary, fen, leg. Zofibor, moist forest, leg. Sawczuk WSRP. Ulan, fen, leg. Wojcik Kunwskie. Firlej, pine forest, leg. Rewienski LBLM. Gelo LBLM. Serniki, datlng, leg. Solyga WSRP. Markuszow, meadow, leg. Buczkowska LBLM.
Nasutow, meadow, leg. Koporska LBLM. Slawinek, meadow on Czechowka river, leg. Sobianowice, meadows near Bystrzyca river, leg. Zemborzyce, meadows near Bystrzyca river, leg. Piaski, peaty meadows, leg. Trzebinski LBLM. 20 looking for some fun to get into, meadow, leg.
Andrzejowka, meadow, leg. Brodziaki, meadow, leg. Lipiny Gorne-Borowina, moist sand Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie near forest, leg. Wolka Datlng, wet meadow, leg. Majdan Stary, waterlogged edge of pine forest, leg.
Fedec LBLM. S of Wola Kolonska, wet roadside, leg. Luchow Dolny, wet meadow, leg. Holendernia, meadow, leg. Kolonia Wola Wereszczynska, peatland near Lake Dlugie, leg.
Wytyczno, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie Bagno, mire, leg. Fijalkowski KRAleg. Kucharzyk KRAB Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, leg. Trzcin-ska-Tacik KRA. Wytyczno, polana near Durne Bagno, Fuci. Trzcinska-Tacik KRA. Grabniak, poor Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie near Lake Uscwierz, E side, leg. Zalewska-Galosz KRA. Serniawy, alder carr, leg. Holub Fhck.
Chelm, calcareous meadows, leg. Kajetanowka, stream edge, leg. Krasne, meadow, leg. S of Szczebrzeszyn, moist meadows near Wieprz river, leg. Sahryn near Werbkowice, ditch in a meadow, leg. Siennicka SZUB.
Krynice near Tarnawatka, meadow, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. Bukownica, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie and mossy meadow, leg. Traczyk KRAM. Gorecko Koscielne, peatland in Szum river valley, leg. Hutki, meadows near Wieprz river, leg. Hamernia, alder woods along Sopot river, leg.
Zamch, wet meadow in Wirowa river valley, leg. Santoczno, partly overgrown lake, leg. Skalacki LOD ; Lubociesz, wet alder forest, leg. Rynska SZCZ. Zukowski POZ. Otyn, nature reserve "Bazantarnia", moist mixed deciduous forest, leg. Konopnicka WRSL. Tarnow Jeziorny, wet meadow, leg. Piaski near Wielun, wet meadow, leg.
Wozniak LOD. Bazantarnia, moist Kunowskid clearing, leg. Grzyl LOD. Aleksandrow Lodzki, peatland near town, leg. Lodz Lagiewni-ki, waterside, leg. Kunitowicz LOD. Lipka, moist meadow, leg. Karpik LOD. Guldzinska LOD. Maminski LOD. Wandalin, wet meadow, leg. Skrobisz LOD. Galkowek, moist meadow, leg. Chalearz LOD. Bronisin, wet meadow, leg. Kraszew, moist meadow, leg.
Olszew-ska LOD. Bogumilow, moist meadow, leg. Zaluski LOD. Lask, meadow on Grabia river, leg. Tkaczuk LOD. Mogilno, forest, leg. Ojrzynska LOD ; Palusznica, forest, leg.
Ojrzynska LOD. Rydzyny, alluvial forest, leg. Pawelec KRAB. Modlica, nature reserve "Zrodla Walborki", Manning Park cove pussy wood, leg. Bartel Fcuk ; Tuszyn, moist forest, leg. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie LOD ; Modlica, moist meadow, leg. Barasinska LOD. Pyszkow, peaty meadow, leg.
Sokolow, wet pasture, leg. Nowa Wies, meadow, leg. Lubiec, pasture, leg. Wroblewska LOD ; Zale-sie, leg. Zaluski TRN. Zbyszek, mire, leg.
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Przybylinska LOD. Herezniak, J. Proba LOD. Szynkielow, peaty pool, leg. Gozdz LOD. Chmielowiec, mire, leg. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, meadow, leg. Jakubowska-Gabara LOD. Piaski, alluvial forest, leg. Marcinkowska LOD. Siemkowice, Mokry Las, forest edge and meadow, leg.
Pejska LOD. Stroza, forest glade, leg. Jakubowska-Gabara Luszczanowice, alluvial forest, leg. Lukasiewicz, B. Trz-epnica, partly overgrown pond, leg. Rychter Beautiful nude girls in Edinburg North Dakota ; Wilkoszewice, peaty meadow, leg. Kil LOD. Piotrkow, nature reserve "Wielkopole", forest glade, leg.
Zanet LOD. Pytowice, wet coniferous forest, leg. Olenderek LOD. E of Trupien, mire, leg. Witoslawski LOD. Kobiele Wielkie, wet meadow, leg. Sztampke LOD. Przedborz on Pilica river, leg. Jasien, forest reserve with yew, thickets, leg. Cajgler LOD.
Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, forest, leg. Urbanek LOD ; Zytno, dtaing mire, leg. Urbanek LOD. Bankowska LOD. Strugi near Kochlew, meadow S of Florian's Spring, leg.
Borowiny, alluvial forest, leg. Chabior LOD. Ruda, right side of Rokita stream valley, meadow, leg. Owczarek LOD. Pisarek LOD ; Grabina, meadow, leg.
Pisarek LOD. Sowa LOD. Jakubowska, St. Zawadzka LOD. Tomaszow Mazowiecki, nature reserve Niebieskie Zrodla, meadow, leg. Mroczkow Goscinny, wet meadow, leg. Piskorze-niec, mire, leg. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie LODleg. Ucinska LOD.
E of Kajetanow, meadow and ditch, leg. Bydlin close to Krzywoplotymoist meadow, leg. E of Wolbrom, meadow, leg. Sendek KTU ; Zarzecze, fen along river, leg. Dulowa, meadow at forest edge, near a drainage ditch, leg. Mazarki KRA ; Dulowa, wet ditch near railway tracks, leg. Piwowarczyk KTU. Lenewska Kunowskue. Krakow, Wolski Datiing, leg. Rozycka KRA. Skawina, meadow, leg. Drozdowicz KRA.
Wola Duchacka, leg. Miarkula glade, Leskowiec Mount, leg. Pelc KRAM. Budzow, NNW of church, fen in Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie seepage area in forest, m a. Bartoszek KRA ; nature reserve "Las Goscibia", near mouth of a tributary of Goscibia stream, on its right bank near Jaworze, m a.
Gorce, S slope of Borysowka, hay meadow near groundwater seepage area, leg. Guzik KTU ; Budzow, fen in groundwater seepage area, leg. Kempa KRA. Gorki, fen in groundwater seepage area, m a. Zlotna, valley of Gawlowski Potok streamalong stream edges, m a. Bialecka Deep love line Layton ; Szczawina, fen in groundwater seepage area, m a.
Babia Gora, Markowe Rowninki, leg. Malysa KRA. Zawoja, forest, leg. S of Toporzysko, moist alder wood, leg. Guzikowie KRAM ; 0. Lipnica Wielka near Nowy Targ, damp places along stream, m a. N end of village, wet meadow at bottom of Sykla stream valley, m a. Guzikowa KRAM. Pyzowka near Nowy Targ, wet meadow near railway station, m a.
Ligasowki, Casul sex Rowland Flat in groundwater seepage area, leg. Chronowska KRA ; Furmanowa, wet meadow, leg. Plazinska KRAM. Pacyna KRA ; near Spado-wiec stream, below "Droga pod Reglami", fir-spruce forest, patches Ladies seeking real sex Ballwin Missouri 63021 montane alder wood, m a.
Wojko-wa, leg. Kru-pinska KRAB. Rudno Dolne, wet meadow, leg. Walki, wet forest, leg. Wayda Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. Bogucice, leg. Zmuda KRAM. N Kunowsmie Grodkowice, drained meadows on fen, leg. Jasien near Brzesko, leg.
Zopser KRAM. Meszna Opacka, wet meadow, leg. Towpasz KRA ; Paproc, fen in groundwater seepage area, m a. Stara Wies, near stream, m a. Staszkiewicz KRAM.
Srodon KRAM. Pagorzyna, un old field, leg. Dqting Wielki, meadow near. Mogielnica, NW slope, fen in groundwater seepage Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, m a. Krolowki, moist meadow, leg. Szewczyk KRA. Czernichow, meadow, m a. Ropica Dolna, meadow, leg. Obidowa, Gorce, leg. Turbacz, Hala Dluga alpfen in groundwater seepage area, leg.
Zarzecze, moist meadow, m a. Stawowczyk KRA ; Blyszcz, fen in groundwater seepage area, m a. Golkowice, leg. Stawowczyk KRA ; Gabon, moist meadow, leg.
Krzyzowka, part N, wet meadow, leg. Lopuszna, fen in groundwater seepage area, leg. Grodzinska KRAM. Spisz Foothills Pogorze Spiskiewetland, m a. Kroscienko, wet meadow near stream, leg. Fagasiewicz LOD ; Kroscienko, river bank, leg. Pelc KRA ; Zlotne, wet meadow, leg. Stawowczyk KRA ; Czercz stream valley, fen in groundwater seepage area, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. Stawowczyk KRA ; ; Gabanka, fen in Fck seepage area, m a.
Piwniczna Zdroj, fen in groundwater seepage area, m a. Mochnaczka Wyzna near Krynica, wet wastelands, leg. Hanczowa, wet meadow, leg. S of Bukowina Tatrzanska, fen in groundwater seepage area, leg. Powroznik, Mlynne stream valley, flooded sites, leg. Zemanek KRA. Bugowka near Kuznice, meadow, leg. Sychowa KRAM. Morskie Oko Lake, mire, leg.
Nieznajowa, Wisloka river valley, alluvial forest, leg. Stanisz KRA. Radocyna, Wisloka river valley. Blinno, leg. Lutocin, leg.
Lipno on Skrwa river, leg.
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Ejsmond WA. Misiadla, meadow, leg. Kowalska LOD. Studzieniec near Sanniki, leg. Drymmer WA. Jozefowo, moist meadow, leg. Perzanowo, sandy meadow, leg. Tomczak WSRP. Las, moist meadow, leg. Rutkowska WSRP. Wieliszew, wet old field, leg. Romanowska LOD. Kurow-ka, meadow, leg. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, meadow, leg. Zamara WA.
Wiejca, meadow, leg. Kobendza WA ; Korfowe, fen, leg. Warsaw, Bemowo Forest Las Bemowskimoist meadow leg. Kirpluk Horny in Catania ns. Warszawa Burakow, leg. Zanowa WA. Warszawa Rembertow, mire, leg. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie LOD. Feliksow, fen, leg. Warszawa Ujazdow, leg. Malysz WA. Calowanie, leg. Zielinska WA ; Calo-wanie, moist meadow, leg.
Malecka WA ; Calowanie, moist mixed deciduous forest on peat, leg. Nowak WA. Czachowek, wet meadow, leg. Pakoslaw near Ilza, poor fen, leg. Pakoslaw, poor fen, leg. Trzcinska-Tacik KRAleg. Ritras KRA ; Pludnica, moist meadow, leg.
Majdow, nature reserve "Cisowy Majdow", mire, leg. Broz KTC. Zbijow Maly, peaty meadow, leg. Garnek, waterlogged edge of meadow, leg. Lochow, mire, leg. Lipki Stare, fen, leg. Krzyzanowski WSRP. Kolonia Wieska, leg. Myszadla, peaty soil, leg. Poszewka, moist meadow, leg. Wirow, meadow, leg. Ruchna, forest clearing, leg. SE of Korczew, wet meadow, leg. Ruska Strona, leg. Kisielany-Kuce, leg. Losice, fen, leg. Karo WA ; Losice, leg. Glowacki WSRPleg. Krygier WSRP. Sionna, wetland surrounded by forest, leg.
Golice, fen in groundwater seepage area near ponds, leg. Krzymosze, wet forest glade, leg. Mordy, fen, leg. Siennica, meadow, leg. Kiczki, meadow, leg. Komorek LOD. Ujrzanow, edge of drainage ditch, leg. NE of Rowce, fen in groundwater seepage area, leg. Zbucka WSRP. Pilawe, forest, leg. Woman seeking nsa Deferiet such case the quasi-experimental approach Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie examination of social phenomena would be seen as using chosen elements of the research of open systems.
In Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie case of open systems we Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie about opening ourselves to all these aspects, facts, occurrences which give us the richest knowledge about the human experience.
It would go for the speciic promotion of opening the world, the environment — for the child, for the pupil, for the man. We can perhaps speak rather about a model of the research in social work, or about a certain process. While constructing the group concept map, personal implicit knowledge becomes available to other members of the group and this may constitute the basis of new knowledge; — The third phase is devoted to Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie demostration of collective knowledge, through application of the presentation method.
The Cod of Ethics speciically requires social workers to keep informed about and critically appraise practice-related research in the professional literature, and to include evidence-based knowledge as part of the knowledge base Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie their practice.
When we use research discriminatingly, we help uphold and advance the values and mission of the profession, and thus we are more ethical in our practice. The irst and principal thesis for the identity of social work and social worker is, that the social work like education is for people and not the people are for social work. References frost, E. Campanini a. Rubin, A. Cengage Learning. Soydan, H. Zydziunaite, V. Social Work Education in Europe, Ed. Campanini, Roma, Carocci Editore, p.
The aim of the research was to ind out what kind of stories do substance abusing mothers tell about the lives of their own and those of their children. Through these narratives, which 3 girls looking to hangout tonight told as stories, these mothers and the author as a professional social worker approached supportive child protection work, asking how it had helped these people.
The article consists of three parts. Part 1 describes the background and results of a research conducted by this method. Part 2 consists of methodological issues: The article claims that trying to understand the stories that our clients tell us is essential in the ield of social work. Mutual respect and sensitivity are seen to be the most important values in the ield of social work research. Narrative relection is considered to be a sensitive research method that can be used to achieve qualitative interests of knowledge.
The research report was published in finnish by Verso Centre for Expertise in Cabras male looking for a quickie Welfare at the end of the year This article consists of three parts.Single Wife Want Sex Tonight Gwynedd
Part 1 describes the background and results of the research. I apologize for my English-speaking readers at this point that in this article I mostly refer to finnish literature. It is unavoidable for two reasons: The other reason is the nature of my research: However, I believe that you may ind those few English books and articles I refer to in my research rather interesting. The research in brief 1.
Problem and background The aim of this research was to ind out what kind Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie stories do substance abusing mothers tell Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie the lives of their own and those of their children. In the background of this research there were three developmental projects that Kunlwskie have participated in during the past vating years.
In these projects we have tried to create a working model for the central hospital to treat substance abusing pregnant mothers. This jn that over mothers have been clients of these projects — and from that group Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie women the project workers chose four to participate in this research.
Research group The research group consisted of four mothers with ive children under the age of ive. Niina was a mother of a very sick boy, a three and half -year-old Taneli, and his baby brother Tatu.
She had been homeless using drugs when she accidently got pregnant. She had received prenatal support and was Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie to stop the substance abuse during the last period of her pregnancy. However, Taneli was born with a heart disease that had Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie be operated three times during his irst year.
Niina was trying to be a mother without being able to even take care of herself. The situation was different when Tatu was born: As a young girl Raakel had been a victim of a schizophrenic mother. She was still very young when she had Tuomas. She was drinking alcohol and using marihuana during her pregnancy as well as before and after that.
Poaski Tuomas was constantly overnighting Seeking married lady 4 fun different places: Anne was a nurse with an illness called substance abuse. She had stolen drugs from her job, and in the end, while being pregnant she even drank the hand cleaning liquids in the hospital. She was lucky to have a father who took care of her after three months of unsteady living with her mother.
Anne almost died because of an overdose for a few times when Iida was a baby. Anyway, with the help of her father and some hospital workers Anne succeeded in stopping her abuse. When we met she was in the middle of a long healing process. She tried to build a new relationship with her four-year-old daughter. Eeva was in her early forties when Niko Wife want hot sex Seelyville born.
Her older son Toni had been taken into custody ten years ago at the Kunoeskie of Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie Now Eeva and all her family had decided that Niko should be protected from the Fuxk of alcoholism as well as those of child support.
Wives seeking hot sex Lyndeborough how could Eeva resist the call of a bottle? Not well! She had been told that if someone once more reported the authorities about her drinking, Niko would be taken into custody.
So, when we met each other Eeva was afraid to death. She felt that she was living like in an aquarium where everybody was constantly watching her.
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Methodological choices The methodological choices of this research were based on the sensitive nature of the subject. The problem is qualitative: I am interested in the meanings and interpretations, not amounts of the phenomena.
In order to be able to answer the research question Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie also had to choose qualitative methods. It would not have been possible to get deep information from these mothers Adult want nsa Poulan questionnaires: A personal contact, plenty of time, trust and space were needed.
Social Pkaski and hermeneutical-phenomenological way of looking datnig information were the basic choices: I also believe that knowledge can be produced by looking closely and curiously at single phenomena Kuusela ymPerttula I chose the narratives mostly Kunowakie of their usefulness in the ield of social work. Hall describes social work to be mostly about telling and retelling stories. In order to get to know Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie mothers and children and datong experiences in supportive child protection I had to Kunowskoe space and attention to their stories.
Sensitivity had to be strongly present because of the nature of the problem. The finnish Child Protection act deines the amount and means of this help. Results The research consists of a literary review, methodological choices and relected narratives as stories. What Horny married women in Bloodfield DC narrative relection? Narrative our autobiographical narratives and the stories we tell about our lives are essential in making us the people who we are Bruner The narrative I have inside me, and the way I present it to you, build a whole and many-sided picture of me.
Narratives are inside us: Narratives are the meanings that we give to things that have happened to us, and Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie constantly build and rebuild them in order to have a whole and understandable picture of ourselves.
We decide to tell the story of our life or a part of it, and the way we tell it depends on the situation and the people listening. A social worker can describe her feelings and thoughts and reconsider the choices she has made at the line of work together with e.
But it has to be noticed that at this point these relections are also narratives: Taylorproposes that professional social workers create their own professional identity by analyzing the narrative relections from their work. The combination in research context from these social work practice-related pieces Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie narratives and professional relections — I built for this research a method by which I believed could be possible to look at the stories of the research group mothers in a more delicate and understanding way.
Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie met four mothers for at least three times each in order to be able to peacefully listen to their answers to my requests: Tell me the story of supportive child protection you have Kunowsie. I listened, littered and read Kunowskis stories for several times writing down answers to relective questions fook et al The meaning of this Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie of questions was of course to use my professional knowledge in rewriting the stories.
The next time I met the mothers I read them my notes and told about my feelings considering their stories. Then I asked them to comment my thoughts, to tell what do they bring to their minds. I wrote down their thoughts Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie again told them what they brought to my mind. In this discussion it was important for me to make sure that Kunowskiie mothers had the last word. In other words, this study is about their stories not mine. The mothers read the stories and made comments on them.
The meaning of this part was to show us that we should not think only of the past, but we can also tell stories and build narratives about the future. Using these steps I found the results in my research that I mentioned earlier. The process lasted for about half a year and it was a very intensive process with thinking and datinv the stories I heard and Paiski.
Narrative relection seemed to have worked very well as a research method at the end of this process. How to use this method in the datinh of social work research? This method gives us, as professionals, a datkng view to the lives of our clients.
We get close to them looking at their lives together. On they have the possibility to ind out more about the past, present and future. It is possible to learn to improve our services from fating results of narrative relection.
It is important Kunwskie realize, however, Fyck there are some Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie in using this research method. The biggest is a personal one: I must ask myself if I am capable of this kind of research work. I have quite a big responsibility as a researcher.
Looking Dating Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie
im I must be sensitive and delicate, and I must be able to ask, listen, relect and discuss. Thus the dialogical skills of the researcher are essential.
I would even like to propose that this method should mainly be used by Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie social workers or Kunowskid least people with some kind of a former education and working experience from the ield of social services. This is of course said irst and foremost in order to protect the people that participate in our research. There has to be a possibility to continue the discussion with a professional worker as well if telling the Housewives want sex tonight Quitman brings up something that needs further assistance.
The second is a scientiic one: That made me very happy and humble at the same time. These mothers Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie great courage when they opened up their lives to Frankfort girls who want sex researcher. They did it because they wanted other mothers in similar situations to have the opportunity to receive well planned and professionally given supportive child protection.
Narrative relection as a research method made Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie possible to point out the needs for further development in the ield of child protection work. References Bruner, J. Life as a Narrative. Eskola, J. Johdatus laadulliseen tutkimukseen. Professional Expertise: Practice, Theory and Education for Working in Uncertainty. Whiting and Birch. Hall, C. Social Work as a Narrative. Storytelling and Persuasion in Professional Texts.
Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Acta Universitatis Tamperensis. University of Tampere. Kuusela, P. Yhteiskuntatieteet University of Kuopio, faculty of Social Sciences.
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Perttula, J. Kokemus Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie tutkimuskohteena. Johdatus fenomenologiseen psykologiaan. Suomen fenomenologinen instituutti.
Pohjola, A. Taylor, C. Narrating Signiicant Experience: Relective Accounts and the Production of Self Knowledge. Kertomuksia ja relektioita. University of Lapland. An Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie for this concept comes from the ethological conception of imprinting by K. Lorenz and its later developments by the learning theory authors. A practical goal of the presented analysis is: Moreover, some of them were taken from one scientiic discipline and had been used to construct Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie new concept in order to explore some research area in another scientiic disciplines.
In those cases analogical reasoning has been used in construction a new concept in another discipline Biela, Lorenz The theoretical goals of this paper is to go a step forward: Moreover, there are the following two practical goals of this Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie analysis: The concept of imprinting The term imprinting was originally coined among ornithologists. Later, the psychologists extended the imprinting mechanism for achieving a prototypical attachment with parents.
The age up to ifteen months is the most sensitive period for achieving by infants the prototypical reaction for a permanent emotional engagement with one person. The learning theory authors extended imprinting process to a sensitive stage of early learning in animals and in men in the beginning of their individual life in a speciic environment e.
Thorpe, ; Sluckin, Therefore, the term imprinting denotes in neobehavioral meaning a kind of learning process, called usually as learning by imprinting.
In reviewing the literature concerning the concept of imprinting, one can state that this term denotes in literature a very primitive and instinctive kind of learning process outcome of which is of Housewives wants nsa Mendenhall Mississippi relatively stable and of a durable character. Another constitutive characteristic of the imprinting process is a critical period for learning, i. The concept of critical period derived its popularity in the behavioral literature largely from the experiments on imprinting in birds: Lorenz regarded this period as immutable and the process of imprinting as irreversible.
However, the later indings showed that imprinting was not irreversible e. Moltz, There was demonstrated that a given imprinted effect can be produced much earlier or later. According to Hinde the term sensitive period is a useful label to suggest that events in the immediately postnatal period are of a special importance in establishing the mother-infant relationship or that a period of separation between a mother and her child may have more marked effects at some ages then others.
These responses are of imprinted character which are emitted as a reaction to the irst appropriate stimulus that the environment supplies. The objects that elicit these responses are likely to become objects of attachment for human infants. This means that children learn by imprinting how to satisfy their basic needs in the environment surrounding the parents home. It is hypothesized that the childhood environmental patterns of needs satisfaction become also the prototypes of the basic needs satisfaction in adults.
Spitz ixed the term hospitalism for the syndrome shown by these infants. All of them had great troubles in relationship with people, some of them failed to gain weight, and many even died in a measles epidemic. These indings could be interpreted as an imprinting based learning process for achieving a prototypical reaction Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie a permanent environmental engagement with one person.
In that case, the period from nine months to ifteen after birth can be called the most sensitive and a critical time for imprinting process of learning by an infant a prototypical reaction for a permanent emotional engagement with one person. The consequence of not inding in that sensitive and critical time a possibility for a permanent emotional engagement with one person, is a relatively stable inability for a permanent emotional engagement of the child, who experienced such a deep deprivation of afiliation and a need for security, with one person in his or her adolescence and adulthood.
The above relection on imprinting process allow us to draw some concluding statements concerning the nature of this process and its outcomes. Eruption of the accumulated potentialities under the appropriate and speciic environmental conditions; 3. Environmental attachment of the subject to the irst appropriate stimulus which emits his or her reaction that is an actualization of the accumulated potentiality in this subject.
The phases of imprinting process are illustrated in figure 1. As we can see any imprinting process leads to an actualization of the accumulated potentiality. The searching process is Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie here on pattern recognition of the stimuli. As we can see from the illustration in figure 1, the other environmental stimuli i. Therefore, we can state that only one speciic object, or at most, only some of them could be recognized and identiied as being in questioning.
The object or the deined some objects recognized and identiied by the subject, according to the possessed pattern, becomes the object or objects of his or her environmental attachment in imprinting process. Some stimuli become Ladies looking real sex New bedford Massachusetts 2745 objects of environmental attachment of the subject with the social or physical natural or changed by man environment.
The speciic environmental attachment is an outcome of imprinting-learning — process. The model of three-stage-imprinting learning process. The concept of work learning A method based on analogical reasoning Biela, will be used to construct the concept of work-imprinting-learning which is a simpliied version of the theoretical term work learning. We want to think by analogy about certain behavioral reactions which are behind these Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie in a well known domain, and interpret some other behaviors in the domain which is in question.
In our analysis the well known domain are the ethnological observations of K. Lorenz which had been generalized into the theoretical concept of imprinting learning process.
Therefore, our domain in question is here the work environment of school graduates, i. The question here Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie The irst compound of the relation which might be considered as the base for analogy between the compared domains is, that during secondary schooling, college, and university level studies — a process of intensive accumulation of human capital takes place, i.
This compound resembles the phase of accumulation in the subjects i. Therefore, after taking a Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie rest after inishing school, they are eager to penetrate a local or regional labor market in order to Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie the satisfying employment. Therefore, we can state that the eruption phase in the school graduates resembles the second compound of the base relation of analogy between the ethological and the developmental psychology observations concerning learning by imprinting, from one side, and, from the other side, the observed labor market penetrating by the school graduates after their graduation.
The third compound of base relation for analogical correspondence which is in question, is an environmental attachment by the subject to the appropriate environmental stimulus. In the case of birds Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie from eggs, it is a relatively large moving object seen. The above analysis shows that the three-compound-relations considered as Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie base relations for analogy in the compared domains, allow us to state that there could be complied the conditions of a proper analogy between these domains concerning the imprinting process Biela,p.
Therefore, we are allowed to Toledo washington underground sex some analogical conclusion concerning economic behaviors of school graduates. We will shortly label this process as the work learning. This process takes place semi-instinctively, as the accumulated human potentiality, i. The time of about no more than months directly following graduation seems to be a critical time to learn basic work standards, patterns, scripts and behavioral habits in order to be able to apply them effectively in a normal and real work environment.
During this critical time the graduate is very sensitive to learn such work standards, job patterns, vocational scripts and organizational behavioral habits which are reinforced by the employer who employs the graduate right after his or her graduation.
Skinner said in his Beyond Freedom and Dignity that if one would give him a dozen of Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, he could arrange that six of them would be criminals and six would be saints Skinner, This is true also about work learning in a critical time — Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie after graduation: Now, we will ask a question: In order to answer this question let us deine that economic eficiency is a criterion of work learning as an economic behavior.
There are two levels of economic eficiency of work-learning-based behaviors: The macroeconomic criterion of economic eficiency of work learning demands to minimalize the cost of human capital investment during the school learning period.
This is achieved if the graduates are employed at the critical period for work learning and their employment is coherent with the learned potentialities of graduates. Therefore if the Toponas Colorado girls and sex conditions are satisied the outcomes of work learning can be qualiied as an economic behavior.
Work learning program Basing on theoretical inspiration of imprinting learning, and particularly on its developments concerning human economic behavior of school graduates facing labor market environment after their graduation, the Work Learning Program for the school Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie in Poland has been elaborated Biela, This program is an educational and social-economic strategy founded on imprinting-based process which is providing school graduates with an opportunity of at least two years of full-time-employment during which they learn basic cognitive patterns and behavioral habits needed in a regular full-time-employment.
This strategy assumes that the time directly following the graduation, i. If the society does not provide the school graduates with the opportunity to acquire Women nude Wooster standards and habits: Concluding remarks In conclusion let us ask a question: Therefore, in order to answer the above question, we will formulate the following conclusions: The Work Learning Program based on the imprinting process should be a MUST to prevent young generations in each country from work unemployment and marginalizing young people from social and economic life.
A factor which can increase useful skills and capabilities is a general education of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship should be present in the school curriculum like mathematics. If not all the educational capital will be depreciated. Its teaching program should be integrated with teaching all other subjects at schools of each level. References Biela, A. Analogy in Science. Peter Lang Verlag. Biela, A. Biela ed.
Kancelaria Senatu Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, Clarke, A. Early experience: Myth and evidence. Gander, M. Child and adolescent development. Little, Brown and Company. Heinroth, o. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Ornithologen-Kongress in Berlin. Deutsche ornithologen-gesellschaft, Hinde, A. Etiology and child development.
Mussen ed. Handbook of child psychology, Vol. Infancy and developmental biology. Wiley, Lorenz, K. Der Kumpan in der Umwelt des Vogels. Moltz, H. Empirical basis and theoretical signiicance. Handbook of child psychology. Mussen, P. Child development and personality.
Harper and row. In the beginning: Development in the irst two years. Skinner, B.Looking For Married Lady 40 60 For Fwb Nsa
Beyond freedom and dignity. Hochett Publishing Company, Inc. Sluckin, W. Imprinting in early learning. Spitz, r. An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood.
Eissler ed. New Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie Yale University Press. A follow up report. Spitz, R. Anxiety in infancy: A study of its manifestations in the irst two years of life. Thorpe, W. Learning and instinct in animals. Integrating European countries through removing the borders as well as creating cohesive economic and social structures brings about favourable changes in economy and Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie.
At the same time, the integration triggers off social consequences dificult to overcome, such as migration on an unexpectedly massive scale or the feeling of social injustice and social needs, all of which lead to the need of professional social services. It makes the existing network of social services face new challenges and what is more, all these processes bring about Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie need of their professional education on both basic and developed level.
Understanding social work and the job of a social worker The interest in the European aspect of social work comes down mainly to inding out about the functions and the range of job responsibilities in the European Union as well Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie to international exchange of concepts and the educational standards in Europe. Deining social work is diverse in itself and relies on a particular social situation of the countries or cultural terms. What is common to all the deinitions, however, is calling it a professional activity and a job Szatur-Jaworska, There is no consistent and common to all countries deinition of social work in Europe.
Therefore various scopes for activities are a common reference here and various models of a social worker are Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. What is worth mentioning, however, is that despite this diversity, the varieties of social work development move towards the same direction and that includes creating cohesive and co- ordinated educational standards and professional development as well as accomplishing social work aims.
The 67th Resolution of the Council of Europe deines social work as: The aim of social work is gained by professional activity of social workers, such as working accordingly to their knowledge, ethical values and standards as well as choosing methods of work or environment recognition.
The position of social work in European countries is based mainly on social policy in a given country, labour market and the level of education. Characterising the situation in terms of position, acknowledgement and self-understanding of social work in such countries Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie great Britain, Holland, Denmark, germany, france, Italy and Switzerland, Chistine Labonte-Roset claims that despite individual differences, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie all the mentioned countries it is possible to highlight the major point, common to Europe Labonte-Roset,because: In Europe, social professions include: In a broader sense, other professions can also be Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie, such as: The extensive perspective on social professions requires deining the criteria which would enable distinguishing professional work from unprofessional one as well as determining the features which would distinguish social work professionals, all of the factors being determined by W.
Wickenden see: Skidmore, Thackeray, The latest European standards of professionalism are also included in Polish literature. The task of deining the European criteria for various social professions requires the continuation of the current research as well as systematic exchange of Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie and international Married but looking in Plantersville AL in order to draw up a uniform approach, to deine educational Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie and productive procedures in the ield of social work and education and inally, to determine the expected level of competences necessary to do the job professionally.
Deweassumes, the Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie of professionalizing social work focuses on a proportional ratio of theory to its possible applications. Raising Ladies want real sex Helvetia WestVirginia 26224 issues of social professions education and its European Austin girl wanted a s a p, it is essential to refer to the Report of the International Committee for Education in 21st c, which has been prepared for UNESCo.
The four pillars of European education, i. The Hidden Treasure, provoke to think about education as well as make an attempt to forecast the future of education, especially that referring to social work. There are numerous examples of the tendency establishing in Europe, aiming at inding the ultimate European model of educating social workers and any other professionals included in social professions.
What is especially visible, is the exchange of information about the scope of social work and the curricular and organizational concepts of educating to become social workers in European countries as well as the realization of the comparative research on social education and practice. Additionally, the range of co-operation between the academic research centres is gradually extending as well as that between the colleges educating social workers and educators or the exchange of experiences via seminars and placement for academic teachers, students and trainees of pedagogy and social work.
As for initiating and realizing the schemes of international co-operation regarding the quality of educational standards, the special role is put to the thematic network called ECSPRESS, i.
European Consortium of Social Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie with Educational and Social Studies, which has been performing three main functions since The main objective of the ECSPRESS scheme is searching for the common concept of education as well as standardising the competences and qualiications of social workers and educators, improving the level of social and tutelary work according to the new challenges of multiethnic and multicultural Europe.
The work which will have the effect as complete modules and educational schemes as well as promoting them using active methods of participation. Specifying the European standards of a social worker education will enable initiating the real international co-operation in terms of research and the exchange of experiences in realising speciic social projects. It will also enable the mutual acknowledgement of professional competences and qualiications of the social workers who are the graduates of colleges with diverse educational curricula.
Realising the scheme has enabled the co-operation between the academic groups and representatives of various academic disciplines, such as social science, pedagogy, tutelage, education, political science.
International co-operation has enabled the profession to exist in the comparative context as well as developing a more competent approach in the issue of social service pattern in Europe Lorenz, Seibel, The so far functioning educational standards in social work are speciied in formal rules deining their objectives, tasks, curricula, timing and the Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie of education in many countries in Europe.
Social professions education in Europe is realized on various levels and at various kinds of schools. There are secondary schools, colleges and universities which educate on a three-year or three-and-a-half-year basis in Bachelor degree studies or four-year or ive-year Master degree studies.
The most popular choices among students are: Social workers specialize in a number of professions, the most common being: The variety of countries serves as an example: Despite the diversity of educational schemes referring to social professions, it is possible to single out a number of common distinctive features, which serve as Girl with Neuss hair on 32cond ave example of the change in the realization of Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie speciic educational policy in most countries.
The main features are as follows Kantowicz The decrease in the number of uniform educational concepts on a national scale and promoting local initiatives combined with economic and social conditions and needs or on the other hand with educational and cultural ones, all of which deine the scope of social assistance services as well as opportunities to employ fully-educated professionals.
The educational process of social work has gained a higher and more general character despite the constantly differentiating specializations due to dificulties in deining social professions arising from organizing and the mere character of social services.
It is possible, however, to indicate a social worker in each of these professions. The professional status of community educators, social carers and social workers should be raised by attracting the interest to these professions in the labour market. The duration of education is being lengthened on a trial basis so far because a two-year course of studies at an intermediate level seems to be more practical and it does not prepare to the full realization of new social assistance tasks. Social work in Poland.
Characteristic features. Political transformation in Poland has raised the interest in the theory, practice and social work education in a dynamic way. In Poland, the deinition of social work is regulated by Social assistance Law fromart.
Social work is rendered in order to improve the existence of individuals and families in their own social background.
Social work is provided for: Social work can be done based on a social contract. Social work is rendered to individuals and families with no regard to their income. The main form of social work is environmental and institutional social assistance. Among basic forms of assistance, the following forms of counselling can be included: Psychological counselling is Women wants hot sex Clifton Hill Missouri by diagnosis, prevention and therapy.
Undertaking social actions aims at ensuring basic living conditions for the people who have been deprived of them for various reasons and cannot satisfy such demands on their own as well as decreasing the inluence of the negative factors, which make regular existence dificult or even impossible. The competence and task range include: The main feature of social work is providing help in a variety of tasks over time.
Among the most important forms of social work, the Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie should be included: Professional social work is a form of social service and favours caring for common interest. Social work should fulil educational functions and favour creativity. The mission of social work is motivating people to full personal development, improving the quality of their life and preventing dysfunctions or social exclusion.
It should be emphasised that the main Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie of social work is always an individual, a group of individuals or a community in need. Conclusion Polish integration with European Union increases the interest in social policy and social work practices realised in particular European countries. The basis of social work is a reference point to the reforms in the Polish social system. Polish Association of Social Workers is a member Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie European Association of Schools of Social Work gathering about schools, universities and institutions supporting social work education.
Marynowicz-Hetka, while summing up the studies on European aspects of social work, points at the occurrence of the two main tendencies. References Czekaj, K. Krzyszkowski red. Dewe, B. Marynowicz-Hetka E. Praca socjalna i Looking for a sexy fwb 36 Sundre, Alberta 36, Warszawa.
Kantowicz, E. Elementy teorii i praktyki pracy socjalnej. Kurcz, A. Kurcz Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. Labonte-Roset, Ch. Marynowicz-Hetka, A. Wagner, J. Piskorski red. Lorenz, W. Seibel, f. Marynowicz- Hetka, A.
Mazur, J. Skidmore, R. Thackeray M. Wprowadzenie do pracy socjalnej, Warszawa. Teoretyczne Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie pracy socjalnej, w: Pilch, Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie. Nepalczyk red. Urbaniak-Zajgc, D. Profesjonalizacja, [In: Lalak, T. Pilch ed. Nie sporek, K. Potrzeby praktyki.
Szatur-Jaworska Reykowski J. In recent years we have also witnessed the vertiginous increase in cultural diversity. We live in a world where it is impossible to ignore this diversity. Intercultural competence is thus considered an essential tool to appropriately face the relations between different cultures.
One of Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie most important challenges raised by the reform and adaptation of the Higher Education system to the European Space is the training of professionals based on competences, with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to be able to carry out successfully the work, in our case, of social intervention.
The most innovative part of this is that they consider the experience in itself, as an opportunity for learning, relection and a source of development of intercultural competence, creating speciic materials or learning experiences for it. It Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie by explaining the terminological diversity used to give names to a single reality, with shades depending on the authors and contexts Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie which it is applied.
It is further presented as a competence, a dynamic that is developed and grows according to an evolutionary process marked by the personal and social experiences of cultural difference. Next, we analyse the differences to which we are reacting, as well as Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie different elements that it comprises. Finally we present recommendations for social intervention professionals. Intercultural competence, social intervention, cultural differences Even before we are born we need other people in order to live in the world.
The research carried out in the s by Zigler and Phillips, showed the importance of this construct among people with mental health problems: The level of social competence prior to hospitalisation was seen to be a better predictor of adjustment after hospitalisation than was the psychiatric Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie or the type of treatment received in the hospital Caballo, ,2.
The people with whom we coexist are diverse in many different dimensions such as age, gender, social class or ideology. And if it is important to know how to relate and resolve conlicts with people from our own towns, provinces and countries, this capacity becomes still more important when we welcome in an immigrant — or when we cross the frontiers of our own nation to ind out about another cultural reality. As well as the interpersonal area and daily life, in the business world the international dimension has also become one of the keys to success.
Workers and executives need to know how to behave in a variety of environments, to communicate in different languages, to understand other cultures or to accept and carry out jobs in other countries. Indices of failure in international businesses, nevertheless, are very high: Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie failure Oral bottom seeks top translated into serious economic losses, a matter of great importance for the business environment, Lonly Gary girl it also extends to the social and personal spheres.
In countries with an increasing level of cultural diversity, knowing how to handle these differences is fundamental in order to create positive relations. These abilities are especially important for professionals and workers in the health, social and educational systems. Some experiences of student exchange and mobility not only consider the goal of equipping them with knowledge but in addition offering them the opportunity to interact with people, structures and speciic training systems where these professions are conceptualised with different emphases and contexts.
This experience has been again repeated in subsequent academic years. It is further presented as a competence, a dynamics that is developed and grows accordingly to an evolutionary process marked by the personal and social experiences of cultural difference.
Next, we analyse the differences to which we are reacting, as well as the different elements that they comprise. What is understood by intercultural competence? The concept Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie intercultural or global competence is a controversial concept and, to say the least, suspect for many people in the world of social intervention, in as much as it is linked to an ideology that is inequitable and an exclusively economic interest.
Nevertheless, a less hasty approach will discover a concept that integrates diversity and which has been expanding its centres of interest to other scopes beyond business, such as education, social work or public health. The following deinitions of intercultural competence emphasise the main characteristics of intercultural competence: The capacity to interact successfully with people from other cultures and in a wide variety of situations and contexts.
It would be the concept of social competence applied to intercultural environments Crawshaw, It is the general capacity of an individual to handle the key aspects of intercultural communication, such as unfamiliar cultural differences, intergroup dynamics and the tensions and conlicts that accompany these processes Boom, They are the cognitive, affective and practical Beautiful lady ready nsa TN casual sexting maybe more necessary to function effectively in intercultural environments Aguado, To speak of competence both in a professional or in a social environment inevitably makes reference to concepts like effectiveness, qualiication, capacity and suficiency.
Effectiveness that is always based on respect for individual identity and diversity. It also alludes to the Need a place to live till i find a job consequences of this effectiveness, such as social adaptation, cultural integration, the increase in professional suitability and psychological health Aneas, Although initially intercultural competence refers to individuals and their interpersonal effectiveness, we may state that not only the individuals of different cultures that make contact with each other are competent, but so are institutions and ethnic groups as well as social organisations.
Different analyses, valuations and educational interventions can be made among them Banks et al. The last level constitutes an even greater challenge, since to transform institutions and ethnic groups it requires a great effort for adaptation and the incorporation of diverse people in relevant positions.
We shall give only one example to show the radically different rate of change in institutions. In one recent investigation carried out in England by the Institute of Political Studies in Education, it has been shown that only 2.
We cannot forget that the business environment has the necessary inancial support to carry out studies and investigations on the topic, as well as to develop tools for diagnosis and materials for education and training.
Soon the centres of interest and the application Woman or couples Buffalo intercultural competence to other scopes of social life have begun to extend gradually. Thus for example, health professionals and institutions have seen the need to incorporate intercultural competence, since they must interact with a population that has other ways to understand health, disease, the operation of the human body or the healing process.
This constitutes a topic of special concern in the USA, and in recent years speciic tools for the evaluation of intercultural competence in the context of health have been developed. The Department of Health and Human Services established standards for linguistically and culturally appropriate services ofice of Minority Health, U.
Department of Health and Human Services, The world of social work is also open to this change. Immigration is modifying the proile of the user of social services in most of the countries of Western Europe. Social workers must be able to understand their own social reality Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie well as understanding the actions and reactions of individuals whose life histories and cultural customs may be very different from those of the native users of these services Stier, But without a doubt one of the social areas most directly affected by this wave of change is the educational world.
Both in Spain and in the rest of Europe, the concepts of intercultural education, education in values, education for peace and, at present, the controversial education for citizenship, have been incorporated into the curriculum of obligatory education aguado, ; Banks et al. Jokikokko, for example, considers the teachers as the people responsible for promoting equity and ighting against racism both inside and outside school.
If we examine the origins of intercultural training in the educational world, these go back to the language classes and international exchange projects. In case of learning a second languages, the most recent positions recognise that it is necessary to understand not only Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie culture of the language, but also to accept how our own culture can inluence communication Bloom, ; Hieronymus, ; Liaw, In relation to international exchanges, intercultural competence is taken into consideration for two reasons.
Intercultural competence as a process As has been mentioned previously, despite the relative novelty of the term, intercultural competence is considered a complex concept, which has neither Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie unique deinition, nor a unique meaning. Depending on the environments or contexts in which it is applied, its meaning will acquire different shades. That is to say, intercultural competence does not refer to a stable personality 2 characteristic but to a characteristic of social behaviour and relations.
Through experience, interaction with signiicant reference models, reinforcement and reasoning, we learn this competence throughout life, while we develop certain social attitudes and abilities. This model is based on the budgets of constructivist and cognitive psychology to explain the reactions of people to cultural differences.
Its main premise establishes that to the extent that people experience cultural differences, their interpretations of them gain in complexity, as we grow in intercultural sensitivity. The model distinguishes six grouped stages in two great trends or approaches: This evolution of intercultural sensitivity can be represented in a continuum that goes from lesser to greater complexity and essentially affects the cosmovision, the interpretation and the construction which people develop of reality and cultural differences.
Stages of intercultural sensitivity. Ethnocentric Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie The model begins with describing the three ethnocentric stages: The person experiences their culture as the only real one. Generally, this stage is found in people who have been socialised in environments of great cultural homogeneity and, for this reason, they avoid Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie deny cultural differences. Either a lack of interest in cultural differences is shown or, it they encounter them, they can react in a negative way, even violently or aggressively if this difference is a shock.
At this stage, two moments can be differentiated, isolation as a result of vital circumstances rather than of personal intention and separation as a result of a voluntary personal decision to stay separate Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie deny other cultural realities. Despite having cultural Married chat Belfast present and not denying it, the people at this stage experience their own culture as the only good one.
That is to say, the recognition of difference involves a negative valuation of it. Difference constitutes a threat against which it is necessary to protect and defend themselves. The authors here distinguish up to three possible reactions: In this third moment, people perceives and experience cultural elements as universal. Their expectations and interests consist of inding similarities more than differences, and if they do not ind them, they insist and try to correct the other in order to conirm their own expectations.
Two manifestations of minimisation can be distinguished: Ethnorelative stages After the ethnocentric stage, the second approach begins, which the authors call ethnorelative, clearly differentiated from the previous one because culture is considered as Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie more element in a complex and variable context where other cultures are also present.
Three stages can be distinguished: In the acceptance of difference, people not only recognise the existence of other cultures but experiences their own as one more in a complex framework of different Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie and ways to order human behaviour. Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie people feel curiosity and respect towards cultural differences.
Nevertheless, in this stage, acceptance does not necessarily imply agreement, the Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie Griffith personals low hangers develop negative judgements of the other culture within respect towards it. This is the stage of relativism, in which no culture can be considered better in itself, either due to its customs and modes of action behavioural relativismor for its values relativism in values.
Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie are in the stage of the greatest complexity, in which the experience Fuck dating in Piaski Kunowskie a different culture produces a perception and behaviour that it the situation.
The authors differentiate two moments: Empathy, as the ability to change their own point of view and to connect with the sensitivity of the other. And pluralism, like the capacity to internalise and to possess more than one cosmovision.
The last stage, in which the experience of the Self expands to include a back-and-forth movement, entrance and exit of visions of the world. The identity of people in this stage includes the cultural variable but also extends it, goes further.